2019-07-19

雅思考试常见逻辑词

一、因果关系

(一)明显因果

1. 后跟原因(因为): because, in that, because of, since, for, as, as a result of, due to, owing to, reasoning

2. 后跟结果(因此): as a result, therefore, thereby, hence, consequently, so, so that, accordingly, thus

(二)隐含因果

1. 导致(+结果):lead to, cause, result in, give rise to, render(使成为), produce, make, support, stimulate, promote, motivate, prompt, spur(激励), spark(引发), fuel(加剧), push, force, tempt(引起)

2. 反映,体现(+结果):reflect, present, suggest, show, imply, demonstrate

3. 考虑到…, 通过…(+原因):given, considering, on account of, in view of, thanks to, according to, rely on, depend on, resort to(诉诸),by

4. 由…而来(+原因):come from, result from, originate from, derive from, initiate from, stem from, attribute to, be responsible for

 

二、转折让步关系

(一)转折关系

but, however, yet, whereas, actually, in fact, in effect, in reality, in nature

(二)让步关系

while, although, though, even though, even if, even, despite, in spite of, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding

 

三、条件关系

if, unless, except when, supposing(that), suppose(that), providing, providing that, in case, as long as, on condition that

 

四、并列关系

and, as well as, also, likewise, in(much) the same way, similarly, similar to, vice versa(反之亦然), not only…but also, both…and…, neither…nor…, equally, or,not…but…

 

五、比较关系

(一)明显比较

1. 同级比较/比较级

2. while/whereas/unlike/than/like/contrary to/instead of/some…others…

(二)隐含比较

1. 变化:change, vary, alter, modify, revise, increase, decrease, destroy, develop, improve, progress, advance, grow, degenerate(退化), continue, remain, stay, stable, still

2. 差异:same, different

3. 超越:surpass, exceed, transcend, excel

(三)最高级/绝对化

1. 明显最高级/绝对化:-est

2. 隐含最高级/绝对化

a. 自身含有最高级含义:maximum, minimum, outstanding, extreme, favorite, top

b. 程度较深的词:surprisingly, amazingly, prohibitively(修饰价格高,令人望而却步)

c. 比较级表示最高级:China is larger than any of the other countries in Asia.

 

六、对比关系

by contrast, on the contrary, whereas, on the other hand, unlike, instead, but, conversely, different from, however, nevertheless, otherwise, yet, in contrast

 

七、其他

1. 表层次 on the one hand, ... on the other hand; first, ... second, ... finally;

2. 表列举 for example, for instance, such as, take ... for example. Except (for), to illustrate.

3. 表结果

evidently, first of all, undoubtedly, without any shadow of doubt, etc.
as a result, thus, hence, so, therefore, accordingly, consequently, as consequence.

4. 表时间

later, next, then, finally, at last, eventually, meanwhile, from now on, at the same time, for the time being, in the end, immediately, in the meantime, in the meanwhile, recently, soon, now and then, during, nowadays, since, lately, as soon as, afterwards, temporarily, earlier, now, after a while, first, after a few days, eventually, that time, in the meantime, meanwhile, afterward, from then on

5. 表顺序 first, second, third, then, finally, to begin with, first of all, in the first place, last, next, above all, last but not the least, first and most important.

6. 表总结 on the whole, in conclusion, in a word, to sum up, in brief, in summary, to conclude, to summarize, in short

没有评论:

发表评论