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2019-12-07

Oasis Feng 评论京东和阿里的付费体制


京东(PLUS)和阿里(88VIP)的付费会员经营思路是很不一样的。

京东 PLUS 会员提供的是「省心」的体验,比如运费券(省得凑单)、免费上面退换(售后省心)。至于省钱方面,PLUS 会员其实优势很微弱,但同样胜在省心,很多时候有了 PLUS 定额券就懒得再花时间去淘券,购物返京豆规则也简单透明。

阿里的 88 VIP 仍然主打省钱:花较少的钱,买到还过得去的服务。除了各种小额购物折扣,一站式 VIP 的虾米音乐、优酷视频 和 饿了么外卖,虽然都不算领域最好,但一个套餐就全都拥有,对大部分国人而言,也已经足够有吸引力了,犯不着再额外掏钱购买别家的会员,大不了有些歌不听,某些剧不看罢了。

可见除了传统的家电 和 非标品类 势力割据外,京东依然在发力中产阶层,而阿里则继续深耕主流消费者。

短期内中国社会的消费结构不会发生大的变迁,在电商领域,淘宝将会面临来自拼多多等下沉电商的更多竞争,进一步拉低利润;而京东在经济下行周期中则会面临中产的消费收缩,带来较大的业绩压力。

阿里的一站式 VIP,短期内由于抱团取暖也许会带来数据上的靓丽,但从中长期来看,则会严重伤害重资本投入的优酷和虾米,后两者近期均已显现出明显的竞争颓势。

京东今年开始采取的联盟式 VIP 给消费者提供了更大的选择灵活度,或将不断蚕食 88VIP 的上层消费群体。

转自 Oasis Feng 的 Twitter
原文地址:https://twitter.com/oasisfeng/status/1202862048557727744

2019-12-02

华为251事件评论


其实马克思早已分析过这个问题:

工资的提高引起工人的过度劳动,他们越是想多挣几个钱,他们就越不得不牺牲自己的时间,并且完全放弃一切自由,在挣钱欲望的驱使下从事奴隶劳动。这就缩短了工人的寿命。工人寿命的缩短对整个工人阶级是一个有利状况,因为这样就必然会不断产生对劳动的新需求,这个阶级始终不得不牺牲自己的一部分,以避免同归于尽。

 ——《1844年经济学哲学手稿》

工资的提高在工人身上激起像自己的雇主那样的致富欲望,于是工人们以为自己可以通过努力工作和资本家一样积累财富,因此聪明的资本家通过提高工资来让工人自愿把自己变成奴隶,主动奉献自己的剩余价。

但是,工资的提高真的就能如同工人所想那样致富,得到美好生活吗?我们不妨再看看导师接下来的话:

大量劳动累积起来,因为资本是累积的劳动;就是说,工人的劳动产品越来越多地从他手中被拿走,工人自己的劳动越来越作为别人的财产同他相对立,而他的生存资料和活动资料越来越多地积聚在资本家手中。

资本的积累扩大分工,而分工则增加工人的人数;反过来,工人人数的增加扩大分工,而分工又增加资本的积累。一方面随着分工的扩大,另一方面随着资本的积累,工人日益完全依赖于劳动,依赖于一定的、极其片面的、机器般的劳动。这样,随着工人在精神上和在肉体上被贬低为机器,随着人变成抽象的活动和胃,工人也越来越依赖于市场价格的一切波动,依赖于资本的使用和富人的兴致。同时,由于单靠劳动为生者阶级的人数增加,工人之间的竞争加剧了,因而他们的价格也降低了。

——《1844年经济学哲学手稿》

对于少数人来说,通过不断地加班,不断地“主动奉献”,确实获得了更多的薪酬,然而仔细想想:

首先对于个体来讲,工人奉献的劳动与给他带来的精神与肉体上代价相符吗?很多为公司几十年如一日加班的员工,在到达年龄瓶颈带来的奉献力下降时,是不是被公司毫不留情地裁员了?那时已经成为“老旧机器”的员工是否还能找到另外一个能接受他继续“主动奉献”的公司而不用自愿降价呢?

其次,对于整个工人阶级来讲,假设其他公司效仿某公司提高工人的工资来提生产效率,“主动奉献”的工人越来越多,公司还会给你原来一样的价码?是不是有越来越多的公司给工人的加班费更低甚至已“狼性”为名,要求无加班费的劳动了?是不是随着时间的推移主动接受加班成了招录工人的前提条件?

不要把资本家想得太高尚,他们给你一块奶酪只是因为从你身上能给他更多的奶酪。

“我看见墙下有一条嫩绿的草地,墙的上空,蓝天朗朗,到处阳光灿然。生活真美好,让未来的一代清除掉生活中的罪恶、压迫和暴力,尽情享受生活的快乐吧。”

——某位司机的遗言

劳动致富并不可耻,主动奉献更是一种可贵的精神,然而,大部分人的可贵精神反而被资本家利用,变成更好地收割韭菜的办法。我们批判某些公司的做法,并不是批判劳动者劳动致富的愿景,而是批判资本家们打着致富旗号,疯狂压榨劳动者的丑恶嘴脸。

来自:为什么有人会认为华为加班是没错的?
原文地址:https://www.zhihu.com/question/337290738/answer/785893545

2019-11-18

To be or Not to be -- The meaning of life, the meaning of death


Everyone who knows Shakespeare must know his most well-known tragedy: Hamlet and that famous line: To be or not to be, that's a question. As for Hamlet, to be or not to be is quite a dilemma: he was doomed to be a tragedy, whether to live or to die. Perhaps everyone will confront a similar choice to Hamlet in his life sooner or later. To survive or to die, to fight or to surrender, to win or to lose. He must make the decision himself. Fortunately, I haven't come to that crucial point yet. Up till now, my life is smooth sailing. Sometimes I ask myself: do I find the real meaning of life and death? Though I am going to be a biologist, I have no definite answer to that. But still, I believe that I did find something in life.

When I ramble along in the peaceful field, hearing the twittering of birds, drifting in the fragrance of wildflowers, I will always praise the beauty of life and feel really happy that I'm still alive. When I learned the mysterious nature and the evolution of life, I was filled with admiration by the greatness of nature. Life is a bestowing of nature, we have no right to smother, it's a part of the universe. I remember one day, when I felt so frustrated by those misfortunes in life, it seemed that I had done everything wrong and there was no remedy at all. I left home, wandering along the street, feeling sad and hopeless. It was then when I caught sight of the sunset. The sun was like a huge burning ball, flaring and shinning, it was so glorious and so brilliant. Soon the whole sky was flaming, the sun gathered its last energy-burning thoroughly, like the solemn end of a tragedy. It sunk slowly under the horizon, soon darkness fell around me. I stood their unaware of where I was. Tears ran down my face. A voice cried out in my heart: "I will wait, till the sun rises again, till the first sunshine on my shoulder." Perhaps that's the meaning of life. Everyone has his own sun and his own dream, and everyone has own brilliant moment when his sun shines gloriously. We'll struggle and suffer in order to reach that brilliant moment. Nothing can stop us, no matter how hard, no matter how many times we fail. That dream, deeply rooted in our hearts, is worthy of devoting our whole life to. All of us want to see the sun shines again and want to catch that glorious moment to appreciate the real beauty of life.

Life is like a long river, it will end someday and somehow. No one can escape from that eternal end when that day comes, we'll say goodbye to this colored world. A man's life is a man's song. Whether it's sad or happy, fierce or quiet, it's his own song. A song was written in his own way with his soul, with his life. A man lived, did what he should do, found what he wants, fulfilled his dream. He then died calmly. Because he knew that there was nothing to regret. He had seen evil and good, ugly and beautiful. Now it was all over, it was time for his play to close and gave the stage to a newcomer. His song was going to end, but it would never diminish, it would become a tiny part of the chorus of the universe, and that will sing forever. Another man lived, struggled, but never reached his dream, for him, life was a perpetual nightmare, then he saw the twilight, they glimmered far in the distance, though he had no time and he would never get there, his heart was quiet, for he knew he had tried his best. His song might only be a faint cry but he knew it was just the prelude to the grand movement of that chorus. He died happily, hearing the song were sung continue. The world is beautiful, because of warm sunshine and also because of its rain and storm. Only a man who has been drenched with tears can understand the real meaning of happiness. Once a famous writer said in one of his novels: there is no real happiness in life, but just one situation compared with another. The whole meaning of life lies in two words "hope and wait".

To be or not to be, it's all depends on a man's own attitude to life, on whether he appreciates the morning sunshine, whether he wants to explore the beauty of nature. If the thunderstorms come, it all
depends on whether he still firmly believes that the sun will rise again. Yes, the sun is going to shine, and it will shine even more brilliant. Do not cry, just wait and hope and fight. Life and death and the sunshine make the world. As they go round generation by generation, day by day, the world goes round. Let's sing out our own song lauding life, lauding world.

Copy from: https://www.douban.com/note/148584871/
A few changes occur due to the spelling or grammar correction.

2019-10-26

使用 Nginx 反向代理开启HTTPS


有些程序可能会提供Web形式,需要登录但是原生程序还不提供HTTPS配置接口,这种情况下,使用 Nginx 反向代理进行控制是一个不错的选择。

假定网页程序为 http://127.0.0.1:8080(如果Web程序默认监听0.0.0.0且不提供任何设置接口,后期可以通过防火墙屏蔽8080的外网访问,仅允许本机访问即可)

实现目的:通过 https://test.com 直接访问(假设test.com解析到127.0.0.1)

1、准备 crt 和 key 文件上传至服务器。

这里示例给的是/usr/local/nginx/conf/ssl/certification.crt/usr/local/nginx/conf/ssl/certification.key

2、在vhost中建立一个新的配置文件,按照下面的填写。

(这里假定建立了vhost文件夹并导入其内的所有conf文件配置信息;如果你没有这样做,可以追加在/usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf的文件尾)


3、重启Nginx服务加载即可。

可根据个人习惯进行重启,例:systemctl restart nginx

EOF.


2019-10-25

HSTS http 强制重定向到 https 的问题


问题:

Chrome会强制将http重定向到https,就算是在浏览器手动输入http://xxx也不可以。


解决方案:

1. 在chrome的地址栏输入chrome://net-internals/#hsts,在Query HSTS/PKP domain中查询指定的域是否有HSTS记录,如果存在,在Delete domain security policies中删除该域即可。

2. 如果完成第一步后仍不能访问,可以尝试清除浏览器缓存。


原因:

要解释上述情况产生的原因,则必须要先了解浏览器的HSTS功能。

HSTS强制要求浏览器与服务器进行HTTPS通信,例如,如果example.com站点开启了HSTS,则不管是在浏览器输入example.com或是http://example.com,亦或者在网页上点击http://example.com链接,浏览器都会自动将http替换为https,然后再发送请求。这样很大程度上避免了SSL剥离攻击的发生。

SSL剥离攻击其实是中间人攻击的一种,它基于用户很少直接在浏览器中输入https或者是用户经常通过重定向从http跳转到https,这样攻击者可以在用户访问http页面时替换所有的https开头的链接来阻止浏览器和服务器建立HTTPS连接。

之所以说是一定程度上避免,而不是完全避免,是因为HSTS也存在一定的漏洞,这个漏洞就是HSTS的开启方式。浏览器如果探测到一个https请求的response头部包含Strict-Transport-Security,则会为该站点开启HSTS功能。这意味每个站点的第一次请求仍有被攻击可能,所以大多数浏览器都会在本地维护一个HSTS域名列表,该列表默认会包含一些经常访问的域名,并且,在访问https站点时,也会将该站点添加到HSTS列表中。所以说,当用https访问过一个站点后,即使用http再次访问该站点,浏览器也会用https,而解决方法就是将该域名从HSTS列表中删除。

原文地址:https://www.cnblogs.com/philipding/p/7898090.html


补充:服务器端配置

如果这个不需要开启HSTS,只需要 Nginx 的 conf 配置文件中,注释掉add_header Strict-Transport-Security一行即可,下面是一个示例。同样的,去掉注释则开启HSTS。

i.e. add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains" always;